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Introduction: The group of preterm newborns with very low birth weight constitutes an important health problem in relation to morbidity and high mortality, the care they require after birth involves a great human and economic demand. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of morbidity and mortality of preterm newborns with very low birth weight and factors associated with mortality in the neonatology service of the José Carrasco Arteaga Hospital in the city of Cuenca, Ecuador, during the period 2012 – 2018.
Methods: A cross-sectional analytical study was carried out, whose universe was 239 patients. For the statistical analysis, the SPSS statistical program was used. 15, a descriptive analysis was performed and the Chi square test was used to determine the association, and to determine the intensity of the association of risk factors with mortality, OR was used, with a confidence interval of 95% and positive significance with P = < 0.05.
Results: The main morbidities were: hyaline membrane (64%), neonatal hyperbilirubinemia (47.3%), neonatal sepsis (39.3%). A mortality of 21.7% is evidenced, the main cause of death was neonatal sepsis (9.2%), the risk factors associated with mortality are: chorioamnionitis (OR: 5.66), extreme gestational age (OR: 3.7), distress syndrome respiratory (OR: 3.9) and necrotizing enterocolitis (OR: 2.86).
Conclusions: Preterm infants with very low birth weight have a high prevalence of morbidity and their mortality is associated with maternal and neonatal factors.
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