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Introduction: Neonatal respiratory distress syndrome is a pathology associated with premature male neonates. At the regional level, no data is associated with severe neonatal respiratory distress syndrome (RDS), so an observational study was developed to measure risk factors.
Methodology: The present cross-sectional - retrospective study was carried out in the neonatology service of the "Teodoro Maldonado Carbo" Hospital, in Guayaquil, Ecuador, from January 2017 to December 2020. Neonates with RDS entered the study with a probabilistic sample. . The variables were maternal, neonatal, Silverman scale, and Downes assessment. Based on the Silverman scale, two groups are analyzed: mild and moderate RDS versus Severe RDS; Odds Ratio is presented, and a 95% confidence interval with a P value.
Results: 302 cases were analyzed, with a gestational age of 33 ± 4.2 weeks. Silverman scores 5.07 ±2.06. The identified risk factors were cesarean section OR 3.92 (95% CI 2.13-7.21) P<0.0001, pre-eclampsia OR 1.73 (1.05-2.87) P=0.033. Gestational age <28 Weeks 7.626 (2.657-21.89) P=0.0002. Gestational age >36 weeks OR 0.4 (0.273-0.782) P=0.004. Sex male OR 2.19 (1.32-3.63) P=0.002.
Conclusion: The risk factors were cesarean section, pre-eclampsia, gestational age less than 28 weeks, and male sex. A protective factor was gestational age greater than 36 weeks.
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